PPP library

Here you can find a list of readings, manuals and reference papers that we find relevant about PPPS. We have organized and classified these references by 8 subjects that are explained below.

This list of references is based on the references suggested by the PPP Certification Guide, from which we have selected those that we consider more relevant, and which we have re-organized to classify them in a more homogeneous way in 8 categories. We have also added a number of references (which are likely to be incorporated in the future versions of the PPP Guide), and we will review and expand this list from time to time.

Note: most of the references are freely accessible. However we have also included a short paid number of references / books that we consider interesting.

The database is currently constructed in English only.

Most of the references included are freely accessible (free access and without prior registration). However, we have pointed out some of them that, being interesting, require the purchase of the respective publication.

We do not accept any liability on the accuracy and availability of the web page source or on the accessibility to the referred reading.


PPP concept bibliography, as well as international PPP guides and some examples of local/national PPP guidelines

A New Approach to Public-Private Partnerships (PF2) HM Treasury, UK (2012) A review of the PFI approach, which incorporates a number of new features in the PFI UK model, including public equity, the use of public guarantees for the debt, and so on. Access
Closing the Infrastructure Gap: The Role of PPPs Eggers and Startup, Deloitte (2006, updated in 2015) The PPP maturity concept is proposed and explained by Deloitte, including three stages of development. This study provides a short and easily digestible overview of the advantages and disadvantages of PPPs. Access
The Guide to Guidance – How to Prepare, Procure and Deliver PPP Projects EPEC (2012) A summarized but comprehensive description of the PPP process, including numerous references to further guidance on each of the topics and phases described. Access
South Africa National Treasury PPP Manual South Africa (2004) The South African official PPP Guide. A concrete / national example of a comprehensive guide to PPP process management. Access
Public Private Partnerships Reference Guide Version 2.0 World Bank (2014)

Describes the PPP process and provides PPP foundations. Includes a useful and detailed list of external key references for each topic.

World Bank PPP in Infrastructure Resource Center World Bank (2016) Provides links and references for a wide number of PPP-related topics, including a number of PPP National guides. Access
How to Engage with the Private Sector in Public-Private Partnerships in Emerging Markets World Bank - Farquharson, Torres de Mästle, and Yescombe, with Encinas (2011) Describes and provides guidance on the whole PPP process, highlighting the experience of developing countries. The focus of this book is on preparing and bringing the project to market, and engaging with the private sector. Access
Infrastructure Australia National PPP Guidelines, Volume 2: Practitioners’ Guide Commonwealth of Australia (2011) Detailed guidance material for implementing agencies regarding how to implement PPP projects under the national PPP policy, including project identification, appraisal, PPP structuring, the tender process, and contract management. Includes detailed guidance in annexes on technical subjects. Access
The PPP Certification Program Guide AMPG (2016)

This Guide introduces the PPP concept and PPP Frameworks in its Chapters 1 and 2, and develops a description of all main phases within a PPP project cycle. This PPP Guide is known as the “PPP Certification Program Guide” and consist on the “Body of Knowledge” of the CP3P certification owned and managed by APMG.



Reference readings about infrastructure financing, project finance at a basic level, forces of finance and fund providers, as well as financial support mechanisms and sensitive aspects for governments involving PPP Project financing.

Mejores Prácticas en el financiamiento de Asociaciones Público Privadas en America Latina Best Practices in Public-Private Partnerships Financing in Latin America, Washington, DC: World Bank Institute Conference Report, World Bank World Bank Institute (2011) Reproduces the outcome of a Conference held in May 2011 in Washington about best practice in private finance in the Latin America region, including examples of approaches to financial support / boosting viability and bankability. Access
The Financial Crisis and the PPP Market – Remedial Actions EPEC (2009) An interesting read to learn more about how intervention measures may help PPPs in times of economic or financial crisis. Access
Preferred Bidder Debt Funding Competitions: Draft Outline Guidelines HM Treasury (August 2016) Describes the process and matters related to debt funding competitions. Access
The U.K. Treasury Infrastructure Finance Unit: Supporting PPP Financing During the Global Liquidity Crisis Farquharson and Encinas (2010)

Describes the intervention and proactive measures to financially support PPPs.

Guidance Note: Calculation of the Authority’s Share of a Refinancing Gain HM Treasury (2008) A methodology to calculate the share in PPP refinancing. Access
A New Approach to Public-Private Partnerships: Consultation on the Terms of Public Sector Equity Participation in PF2 Projects HM Treasury (2012) A consultation paper on the new PPP approach developed in the UK with respect to the public sector participation in equity. Access
Guide to Guidance: How to Prepare, Procure, and Deliver PPP Projects EPEC (2012) Annex 1 provides a useful summary on project finance in the context of PPPs. Access
PPP: Principles of Policy and Finance E. R. Yescombe - ISBN13 9780750680547 (2007) Chapters 8–12 provide knowledge about project finance techniques in the PPP context. Note: this book is not of free access Access
Investment Financing in the Wake of the Crisis: The Role of Multilateral Development Banks Chelsky and others (2013) Provides information about the role of Multilateral Investment Banks. Access
What are Infrastructure Funds? Kelly DePonte, Pribitas Partners (2009) Provides a useful introduction to the work of infrastructure funds. Access
Where Next on the Road Ahead? Deloitte Infrastructure Investors Survey. Deloitte (2013) An interesting paper on the recent evolution and trends among the infrastructure funds, and the institutional investor’s role in infrastructure investment. Access
Institutional Investment in Infrastructure in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies PPIAF (2014)

A general overview of institutional investors.

The PPP Certification Program Guide, Chapter 6 – Appendix APMG (2016)

Appendix A to Chapter 6 describes the bid preparation and submission process including knowledge about the process of negotiating with lenders.

The PPP Certification Program Guide, Chapter 5 (section 4) APMG (2016)

Section 4 goes deeper in the subject of financial structuring (from the public perspective), providing examples of co-financing and other financial support techniques.

The PPP Certification Program Guide, Chapter 1 (section 7) APMG (2016)

Section 7 in Chapter 1 describes the fundamentals of PPP financing including an analysis of sources of funds, an introduction to project finance and an extensive description of co-financing and other means of publics / official financial support to PPP projects. It also includes a list and description of key issues surrounding finance.



Regarding the operational framework of PPPs, readings suggested are included in “PPP General” category, and within the categories “preparation and appraisal”, “contract structuring and contract standards”, “PPP tender process design and management” when referring to those specific phases of the cycle.

Pasivos contingentes soberanos. Toolkit para su identificación, cuantificación, monitoreo y manejo de riesgos Demaestry y Moskovits, BID (2015)

[This publication is only available in Spanish] Siendo un documento dedicado a los pasivos contingentes en su conjunto (es decir, no sólo aquellos de carácter explícito y no sólo aquellos relativos a los contratos PPP), es de alta utilidad para comprender el concepto de los pasivos contingentes y la problemática de su cuantificación y valoración.

Lineamientos para la valuación de compromisos contingentes cuantificables Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas, Perú (2015)

[This publication is only available in Spanish] Documento publicado por resolución ministerial del Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas, que regula la valoración de los pasivos contingentes en los PPP, así como el registro de estos y de los pasivos contingentes y su actualización.

Metodología Valoración y seguimiento de riesgos en contratos estatales DGCP (2011)

[This publication is only available in Spanish] En desarrollo del CONPES 3107 desarrolla el enfoque metodológico para la gestión de riesgos en contratos públicos (incluido PPP) y en especial directrices metodológicas para la cuantificación de los pasivos contingentes.

Política de Manejo de Riesgo Contractual del Estado para Procesos de Participación Privada en Infraestructura CONPES 3133 (2001)

[This publication is only available in Spanish] Documento de política de manejo de riesgos emitido por el Consejo Nacional de Política Económico y Social que regula las pautas a seguir en la asignación y gestión de riesgos en contratos del estado, con especial incidencia en los PPP. El cual sienta las bases en relación a la gestión de los pasivos contingentes explícitos relativos a tales contratos. Posteriormente actualizado por CONPES 3133.

AA1000 Stakeholder Engagement Standard Accountability (2011)

Provides specific guidance on stakeholder management.

A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge Project Management Institute, Inc. (PMBOK® Guide) – Fifth Edition (2013) A reference guide for the broad discipline of Project management, which results applicable to the management of any PPP project from the public perspective.Note: this publication is not of free access Access
ISSAI 5220 – Guidelines on Best Practice for the Audit of Public/Private Finance and Concessions INTOSAI (2007)

Issued by the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions, provides guidelines on best practices for evaluating PPP projects throughout the entire lifecycle.

Contingent Liabilities: Issues and Practice, IMF Working Paper WP/08/245 Cebotari (2008) A paper on managing contingent liabilities, including for PPP projects. It includes case studies to illustrate management challenges and practices from different countries and issues. These case studies also highlight best practices. Access
Public-Private Partnerships: In Pursuit of Risk Sharing and Value for Money [ISBN-9789264042797] OECD (2008) The book identifies best practices for maximizing Value for Money for PPP projects, including accounting for fiscal impacts and affordability. The book also covers issues with regulatory reform, governance, and developing institutional capacity. Note: this publication is not of free access Access
Dedicated Public-Private Partnership Units: A Survey of Institutional and Governance Structure [ISBN: 9789264006515] OECD (2010) Provides an overview of dedicated PPP units in OECD countries, including case studies of the experiences of five jurisdictions (state of Victoria, Australia, Germany, Korea, South Africa and the United Kingdom). Note: this publication is not of free access. Access
Public-Private Partnership Units: Lessons for their Design and Use in Infrastructure World Bank (2007) This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of PPP units in developed and developing countries. The report offers lessons in the context in which PPP units have been most effective. Access
A framework for disclosure in PPP Projects World Bank, PPIAF (2015) Explains the relevant and main contents of what should constitute a contract information disclosure framework. Provides examples of jurisdictions that provide templates in their policy guidelines and suggests its own template for proactive disclosure in section 10 “Templates”. Access
Project Governance: A Guidance Note for Public Sector Projects HM Treasury UK (2007) Provides information on key issues related to project governance of a public project. Access
The Orange Book. Management of Risk— Principles and Concepts HM treasury UK (2004) Provides information on risk management of the PPP process. Access
The PPP certification program guide (chapter2) APMG (2016)

Chapter 2 describes what constitutes a framework and explains the main elements of it.



4ps – A guide to Contract Management for PFI and PPP Projects


4ps – A guide to Contract Management for PFI and PPP Projects


Reference manuals (or concrete sections of such manuals) on the subject, together with guides and papers on financial and fiscal structuring, payment mechanisms, risk allocation and contractual standards

Dispute Resolution Checklist and Sample Wording PPPRIC web site (2016) Provides advice in relation to the design of Dispute Resolution systems and processes. Access
Recommended PPP contractual provisions WB (2015) Recommends standard provisions for key aspects of the PPP contract such as early termination, confidentiality and disclosure, lender´s rights and others. Access
Guidebook for Risk Assessment in Public Private Partnerships. FHWA, Department of Transportation, US (2013) Provides guidelines for risk assessment in PPPs. Access
Termination and Force Majeure Provisions in PPP Contracts EPEC (2013)

Discuss different approaches and provide tips and reflections on recommended termination provisions.

Termination and Force Majeure Provisions in PPP Contracts: Review of Current European Practice and Guidance. Allen and Overy. European PPP Expertise Centre. (2013)

Examines European practice and guidance in relation to termination and force majeure in PPPs.

National Treasury PPP Manual, South Africa (Module 5: Procurement). National Treasury PPP Unit, South Africa (2004) Module 5 describes procedures and standard approaches for the design of the contract and PPP tender documents. Access
The Guide to Guidance – How to Prepare, Procure and Deliver PPP Projects (Section 2) European PPP Expertise Centre (EPEC) (2012) Section 2 (“detailed preparation”) covers both final appraisal tasks and structuring of tender and contract. Of particular interest is the description of contract termination issues and methods to calculate the termination compensation sum. Access
Online Toolkit for Public Private Partnerships in Roads and Highways World Bank Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) (2009) ncludes a description of tender processes and a reflection on different revenue structures, including an attached paper analyzing payment mechanisms in roads Access
Risk Allocation and Contractual Issues Partnerships Victoria. (June 2001) An extensive analysis on risk allocation and risk-related contractual standards. Access
Infrastructure Australia National PPP Guidelines Volume 2: Practitioners’ Guide Commonwealth of Australia (2011)

Includes guidelines to structure PPP contracts and tender processes.

South Africa, The PPP Standardized Terms of PPP Contract (“Standardization”). National Treasury Standardized PPP Provisions: First Issue, 11 March (2004) This Standardization describes the key issues that are likely to arise in public private partnership (“PPP”) projects regulated by the provisions of Regulation 16 of the Treasury Regulations (“Treasury Regulation 16”). Access
Standardization of PFI2 Contracts HM Treasury (2012) Detailed guidelines to structure a PFI (user-pays PPP) contract. Description of payment mechanism design (based on availability payments unitary approach) is highly recommended. Access
The PPP Program Certification Guide (appendix A to chapter 5) APMG (2016) Provides a description of a “by default” risk allocation matrix. Access
The PPP Program Certification Guide (chapter 5) APMG (2016) Chapter 5 deals with the process and tasks of designing the structure of the PPP contract (financial & risk structuring), including a detailed description of revenue regimes and payment mechanisms and other reflections on main business provisions in PPP contracts. Access


In addition to relevant international and national guides and publications, specifically readings on precise subjects such as unsolicited proposals and competitive dialogue processes.

Public-Private Partnership Handbook Asian Development Bank (2008) Includes an overview of the key activities related to PPP tender processes. Access
The Guide to Guidance – How to Prepare, Procure and Deliver PPP Projects (Section 3) European PPP Expertise Centre (EPEC) (2012) Section 3 includes an overview of the key steps in the bidding process, finalization of the PPP contract, and financial close. Access
Online Toolkit for Public Private Partnerships in Roads and Highways World Bank PPIAF (2009) Includes a description of PPP tender processes. Access
Unsolicited Proposals – An Exception to Public Initiation of Infrastructure PPPs: An Analysis of Global Trends and Lessons Learned Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) (2014)

Discuses global trends related to unsolicited proposals, including lessons learned from the management of such proposals, and some key implications for further considerations.

World Bank PPP in Infrastructure Resource Center: “procurement processes and bidding documents” (online) World Bank (online) This section of the PPPIRC page [“procurement processes and standardized bidding documents”] provides information an examples on design of tender process. Access
Unsolicited Infrastructure Proposal: How Some Countries Introduce Competition and Transparency Hodges, J., Dellacha, G. Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF). (2007)

The importance of a good analysis of unsolicited proposals.

Competitive Dialogue in 2008. OGC/HMT Joint Guidance on Using the Procedure UK Office of Gov. Commerce (2008) Describes the process and main features to consider when structuring and handling a competitive dialogue as regulated by the European Union. Access
Infrastructure Australia National PPP Guidelines Volume 2: Practitioners’ Guide Commonwealth of Australia (2011)

Includes guidelines to structure PPP contracts and tender processes, and manage tender process of the “interactive type”

The PPP Certification Program Guide (appendix A to chapter 4) APMG (2016)

Appendix A to Chapter 4 describes the main types of tender process worldwide. Chapter 6 introduces the key knowledge on the design and management of a tender.



A compendium of literature on case studies and project examples including reports on specific projects and some sectorial or geographical compendia.

Success Stories and Lessons Learned: Country, Sector and Project Examples of Overcoming Constraints to the Financing of Infrastructure World Bank Group (2014)

Explains the current challenges of EMDEs in accessing private finance, explaining a number of relevant success cases and lessons learned.

Case Studies on the Public Private Partnerships at Humansdorp District Hospital Universitas, Pelonomi Hospitals and Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital PPP Unit of the National Treasury South Africa (2013) Describes several case studies on the various scopes and structures in health PPPs in the country. Access
A Preliminary Reflection on the Best Practice in PPP Health Sector: A Review of Different PPP Case Studies and Experiences The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), World Health Organization (WHO) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) (in draft version 2012) include several case studies on the various scopes and structures in health PPPs. Access
I-595: North American Transport Deal of the Year. Infrastructure Magazine, Deloitte (July 2010 ) Describes the case study of the I-95 in Florida. Access
South Africa’s Renewable Energy IPP Program: Success Factors and Lessons. Eberhard, and others, The World Bank Institute and the Public Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), The World Bank, Washington, D.C. (May 2014) Analyses cases studies, including the energy IPP program in South Africa. Access
Paving the Way: Maximizing the Value of Private Finance in Infrastructure World Economic Forum (2010) Includes several case studies on relevant PPP transactions. Access
Public-Private Projects in India — Compendium of Case Studies Government of India and PPIAF (2010)

A paper that describes the main lessons learned (good and bad) for a number of projects. This is very useful to complement the information and explanations provided about “project failures” in this chapter.

Resource Book on PPP Case Studies European Commission (2004) Includes a number of European case studies, including a number of joint venture examples in the water and transportation sectors. Access
Health System Innovation in Lesoto Prepared by UCSF Global Health Group and PwC (2013) Describes the case of an integrated health PPP in Lesotho. Access
Handshake issue #3 IFC (October 2011) Discusses the role PPPs and other private involvement in the health sector Access
Handshake (the International Finance Corporations´s quarterly journal on PPPs) issue #1 IFC (May 2012 reprinted) Provides for information and discussions about the role of PPPs in the water sector
La Experiencia Española en carreteras Andrés Rebollo, commissioned by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) (2009) Describes Spanish experience in road PPPs. Annex 2 provides for a case study of a PPP based in shadow toll bands. Note: only available in Spanish. Access
Experiencia Española en Concesiones y APPs: Rails and Light Rails and other transport infrastructure A. Rebollo commissioned by IDB (2009) Describes the Spanish experience in rail and light rail PPPs and provides case studies and reflections on payment mechanisms. Note: only available in Spanish Access
National PPP Forum – Benchmarking Study, Phase II: Report on the performance of PPP projects in Australia when compared with a representative sample of traditionally procured infrastructure projects University of Melbourne (2008) Australia’s National PPP Forum (representing Australia’s National, State and Territory governments) commissioned The University of Melbourne in 2008 to compare 25 Australian PPP projects with 42 traditionally procured projects Access


It includes guides and manuals related to the appraisal phase, including specific references on project selection, CBA, social assessment, VFM analysis, affordability analysis, financial or commercial feasibility analysis and accounting / debt impact in national accounts analysis.

A Guide to the Statistical Treatment of PPPs Epec (2016)

[Esta publicación está solamente disponible en Inglés]

The new Guide produced by EPEC on statistical treatment of PPP in Europe, based on the new standards that came into force in 2015. Is a valuable guide that helps from a practical stand point to assess when a PPP will or should be regarded as a public asset therefore impacting in national accounting by reflecting the investment in deficit during construction and recognizing the project value as a public debt, always according to the European standards (European System of Accounts 2010).

Manual on Government Deficit and Debt – implementation of ESA 2010 Eurostat 2014: Manual on Government Deficit and Debt – implementation of ESA 2010 Eurostat (2014) This is a detailed presentation of rules and procedures for the implementation of the European System of Accounts. It presents statistical methodologies and practices that allow EU member countries to estimate their debt and deficit, among other fiscal aggregates. Access
How to Engage with the Private Sector in Public-Private Partnerships in Emerging Markets (section 6) Farquharson and others, (2011) The book presents a comprehensive view of issues and challenges for the development of PPP programs and projects in Emerging Markets. Chapter 6 addresses several issues of the appraisal phase. Access
Guidance for Public Private Partnerships in New Zealand National Infrastructure Unit of the Treasury (2009)

The guide presents a general description of the PPP process in New Zealand. It establishes the requirements for the construction of a Business case of a project, and defines basic decision criteria for the approval of PPP initiatives.

Project Preparation/Feasibility Guidelines for PPP Projects Ministry of Finance. Government of Pakistan. (2007) This guideline presents the PPP process for the government of Pakistan, focusing on project screening, pre-feasibility studies and feasibility exercises. Access
Social Impact Assessment Guideline Government of Queensland (2011) This is a policy paper about internal processes necessary to conduct a social impact assessment. Access
Good Practice Note: Addressing the Social Dimensions of Private Sector Projects International Finance Corporation (IFC) (2003) The Note presents the IFC’s approach to evaluating social impacts in projects they finance. It is a comprehensive and detailed guide of how to conduct social impact assessment. Access
Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA The Inter-organizational Committee on Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment (2003) The report presents the theory and examples of the process of assessing social impacts of programs in the federal level of the United States government. Access
The National Public Private Partnership Guidelines Infrastructure Australia (2013) Volumes 5 and 8 present and discuss the main methodological issues regarding the adjustments of cash flows to risk in the context of PPPs. Access
Value-for-Money Analysis—Practices and Challenges: How Governments Choose When to Use PPP to Deliver Public Infrastructure and Services Helen Martin, Report from World Bank Global Round-Table, Washington DC (28 May, 2013)

This paper presents the conclusion of a conference on Value for Money (VfM) practices, presenting the international perspective on the subject.

National Treasury PPP Manual Module 4: PPP Feasibility Study South Africa (2004) The text presents a comprehensive description of the appraising exercises required for the approval of PPP projects in South Africa. Access
The Guide to Guidance How to Prepare, Procure and Deliver PPP Projects; section 2 EPEC (2012) Section 2 (“detailed preparation”) covers both final appraisal tasks and structuring of tender and contract. Access
Operational Note:Implementing a Framework for Managing Fiscal Commitments from Public-Private Partnerships World Bank Group (2013) The operational note presents the use of some fiscal feasibility tests and discusses experiences of healthy public financial management regarding PPPs Access
Risk Distribution and Balance Sheet Treatment: Practical Guide European PPP Expertise Center (EPEC) (2011) The paper presents a summary of the approach adopted in the European System of Accounts (ESA)95 for accounting treatment of PPP contracts. Access
Guidebook for Risk Assessment in Public Private Partnerships. FHWA, Department of Transportation, US (2013) Provides guidelines for risk assessment in PPPs. Access
P3 Business Case Development Guide PPP Canada. (2016) The report provides a very comprehensive, country-specific approach to the Appraisal Phase Access
Feasibility Study Guideline for Public Private Partnership Projects University Transportation Centre for Alabama (2010) The report presents a discussion of scenario analysis to test the commercial feasibility of projects, with practical and numerical examples (item 6.3). Access
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Strategic Decision Making Zopounidis, C., Pardalos, P. (Eds.). In Handbook of Multicriteria Analysis. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2010) Cost-effectiveness and multi-criteria analysis. Access
THE GREEN BOOK: Appraisal and Evaluation in Central Government HM Treasury (2011) The UK national Guide to appraisal and evaluation of projects. Access
Multi-Criteria Analysis: A Manual Department for Communities and Local Government: London (2009) Defining monetary values for all the major costs and benefits when this is impractical. Access
Cost – Effectiveness And Cost-Benefit Analysis Cellini, S.R. , Kee, J. E. In Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation, Third Edition, pages 493- 530. (2010)

Cost effectiveness ratio.

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